Global carbon budget 2010

The original data to complete the global CO2 budget are generated by multiple agencies and research groups around the world and are collated annually by the Global Carbon Project.

'Rapid growth in CO2 emissions after the Global Financial Crisis of 2008-2009' by GP. Peters, G. Marland, C. Le Quéré, T. Boden, J.G. Canadell and M.R. Raupach is published online by Nature Climate Change on December 4th 2011.

Requests reprints at: glen.peters(at)cicero.uio.no 

Jump to data

Brief summary of data sources:

Emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production. 1959-2008 estimates for fossil fuel combustion are from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 2009 and 2010 estimates are based on energy statistics published by the British Petroleum Company. Emissions from cement production were estimated by CDIAC based on cement production data from the US Geological Survey. The error around the estimate is about ±5 % for a ± 1 sigma confidence level. 

Reference: Marland, G., T.A. Boden, and R. J. Andres. 2005. Global, Regional, and National fossil fuel CO2 emissions. in Trends: A Compendium of data on global change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis center, oak ridge national laboratory, U.S. Department of energy, oak ridge, tenn., U.S.A.

Emissions from land use change. 1959-2010 are estimated based on deforestation statistics published by the Food and Agruculture Organization of the United Nations and a bookkeeping method developed at the Woods Hole Research Center . The error around the estimate is about ±0.7 PgC/y. 
Reference: Houghton, R.A., 1999. The annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from land use 1850-1990. Tellus51B, 298-313.

The atmospheric CO2 increase are estimated from atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements by the Earth System Research Laboratory of the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/ESRL). 1959-1980 are from Mauna Loa station. 1980-2010 are global averages. The error around the estimate varies every year and is around ±0.25 PgC/y (see ESRL web site above for annual errors). The CO2concentration measurements are provided by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory, the CO2 Program at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and other research groups.

Reference: Keeling, C.D. and T.P. Whorf. 2005. Atmospheric CO2 records from sites in the SIO air sampling network. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.

The ocean sink for 1959-2008 was estimated using the average of four global ocean biogeochemistry models forced by observed atmospheric conditions of weather and CO2 concentration (see Le Quéré et al. (2009) above). The mean ocean uptake for the 1990s was normalised to the observational-based estimates. The ocean sink for 2009 and 2010 were estimated from the sink anomalies estimated by four ocean biogeochemistry models. The error in ocean sink is about ±0.5 PgC/y. More information on the models used can be found here.

The land sink for 1959-2010 was estimated from the residual of the other budget terms: 
land_sink = fossil_fuel + land_use_change - atm_growth - ocean_sink

All uncertainties represent ± 1 sigma error (68 % chances of being in the range provided) 
 

References to previous updates of the global CO2 budget by the Global Carbon Project: 
Friedlingstein, P., R.A. Houghton, G. Marland, J. Hackler, T.A. Boden, T.J. Conway, J.G. Canadell, M.R. Raupach, P. Ciais, and C. Le Quéré (2010). Update on CO2 emissions. Nature Geoscience3, 811-812. Requests reprints at: P.Friedlingstein(at)exeter.ac.uk

Le Quéré, C., M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P.E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, F. I. Woodward (2009). Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Nature Geoscience2, 831-836. Requests reprints at: c.lequere(at)uea.ac.uk

Canadell, J., C. Le Quéré, M.R. Raupach, C. Fields, ET Buitenhuis, P. Ciais, T.J. Conway, N. Gillett, R.A. Houghton, and G. Marland (2007). Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. PNAS, 104, 18866-18870.

Raupach, M.R., G. Marland, P. Ciais, C. Le Quéré, J. Canadell, G. Klepper, and C.B. Field (2007). Global and Regional Drivers of Accelerating CO2 Emissions. PNAS, 104, 10288-10293.

 

All values in PgC/yr, for the globe. For values in billion tonnes of CO2, multiply the numbers below by 3.67.

      time      fossil-fuel   land-use   atmospheric   ocean        land    
      year        +cement      change      growth       sink        sink 
      1959.5        2.45        1.46        2.00        1.46        0.46
      1960.5        2.57        1.45        1.15        1.37        1.50
      1961.5        2.58        1.52        2.02        1.24        0.84
      1962.5        2.69        1.51        1.36        1.25        1.59
      1963.5        2.83        1.51        1.51        1.41        1.42
      1964.5        3.00        1.50        0.59        1.62        2.28
      1965.5        3.13        1.54        2.17        1.82        0.68
      1966.5        3.29        1.54        2.63        1.80        0.40
      1967.5        3.39        1.58        1.57        1.60        1.81
      1968.5        3.57        1.54        2.19        1.56        1.36
      1969.5        3.78        1.54        2.78        1.59        0.95
      1970.5        4.05        1.53        2.25        1.50        1.83
      1971.5        4.21        1.40        1.80        1.61        2.20
      1972.5        4.38        1.32        3.59        1.80        0.31
      1973.5        4.61        1.31        2.57        1.76        1.60
      1974.5        4.62        1.29        1.66        1.66        2.60
      1975.5        4.60        1.30        2.40        1.76        1.74
      1976.5        4.86        1.32        1.78        1.81        2.59
      1977.5        5.03        1.35        4.46        1.86        0.05
      1978.5        5.09        1.30        2.76        1.90        1.73
      1979.5        5.37        1.25        3.72        1.73        1.18
      1980.5        5.32        1.25        3.74        1.87        0.96
      1981.5        5.15        1.26        2.34        1.94        2.14
      1982.5        5.11        1.26        2.21        2.00        2.16
      1983.5        5.10        1.44        3.89        2.20        0.45
      1984.5        5.28        1.47        2.48        2.05        2.22
      1985.5        5.44        1.50        3.69        2.05        1.20
      1986.5        5.61        1.54        2.23        2.07        2.85
      1987.5        5.75        1.52        5.71        2.04       -0.47
      1988.5        5.97        1.52        4.73        1.98        0.77
      1989.5        6.09        1.54        2.87        1.95        2.81
      1990.5        6.15        1.45        2.59        2.11        2.90
      1991.5        6.24        1.65        1.49        2.21        4.20
      1992.5        6.18        1.69        1.46        2.35        4.06
      1993.5        6.17        1.56        2.65        2.36        2.72
      1994.5        6.28        1.52        3.57        2.24        2.00
      1995.5        6.42        1.50        4.14        2.15        1.63
      1996.5        6.55        1.48        2.27        2.12        3.63
      1997.5        6.66        1.46        4.18        2.17        1.77
      1998.5        6.64        1.45        6.03        2.33       -0.27
      1999.5        6.58        1.41        2.82        2.16        3.01
      2000.5        6.75        1.43        2.63        2.04        3.50
      2001.5        6.91        1.24        3.91        1.91        2.34
      2002.5        6.98        1.07        5.12        2.44        0.50
      2003.5        7.40        1.04        4.67        2.40        1.37
      2004.5        7.78        1.02        3.35        2.35        3.09
      2005.5        8.09        1.00        5.12        2.44        1.53
      2006.5        8.35        1.00        3.80        2.46        3.09
      2007.5        8.54        0.95        4.50        2.52        2.47
      2008.5        8.75        0.94        3.84        2.34        3.51
      2009.5        8.63        0.88        3.46        2.47        3.57
      2010.5        9.14        0.87        5.01        2.31        2.69

Questions and comments should be sent to Corinne Le Quéré

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